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Motors and Drives Fundamentals (MP-1010)

Course Length: 16 hours

Purpose: That the student learns the fundamentals of AC and DC motor theory including single and three phase induction motors, synchronous motors, magnetic motor starters, controller fundamentals, reduced voltage starters, DC controllers, and variable frequency drives.

This course consists of lectures and lab demonstrations that use actual motor controls, complete with fundamentals of troubleshooting faults.

Audience: This course is recommended for maintenance mechanical oriented personnel who begin to interact with motors, motor controls and associated equipment.

Objectives: After completing this course, participants will be able to:

  • Describe the operation of AC and DC motors
  • Describe the operation of variable AC and DC Drives.
  • Identify main faults and troubleshoot motors and variable speed drives
  • Contribute to minimize plant downtime.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION AND BASIC ELECTRICAL SAFETY 
Objectives 1-1
Introduction 1-1
Participant Materials 1-2
Basic Electrical Safety 1-2
Accidents 1-2
General Safety Rules 1-4
Effects of Electrical Current on the Body 1-5
Electrical Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 1-7
Grounding 1-8
Electrical Concepts Review 1-9
Electricity 1-9
Basic Electrical Circuit 1-10
Ohm’s Law 1-12
Electromagnetic Fields and Forces 1-12
Summary 1-18

2. DC MOTORS FUNDAMENTALS
Objectives 2-1
Introduction 2-1
DC Motor—Theory and Operation 2-2
Force Effects 2-3
Force Couple 2-5
Commutation 2-6
DC Motor—Construction 2-8
Armature 2-8
Frame 2-11
Field Poles and Coils 2-12
Brush Rigging 2-12
Enclosures and Ventilation 2-13
Interpoles and Coils 2-14
Insulation 2-15
DC Motor – Electrical Connections 2-16
Terminal Identification for DC Motors 2-16
Main Connections on a DC Motor 2-16
Nameplate Data for a DC Motor 2-18
Types of DC Motor and Applications 2-20
Shunt Motor 2-20
Series Motor 2-22
Compound Motor 2-24
Stabilized Shunt 2-27
Brushless DC Motor 2-28
Permanent Magnet Motor 2-28
Summary 2-31

3. AC MOTORS FUNDAMENTALS
Objectives 3-1
Introduction 3-1
AC Motors—Theory and Operation 3-2
Three-Phase AC Motor 3-4
Single-Phase AC Motor 3-10
Synchronous Speed 3-13
Torque 3-14
AC Motor—Construction 3-15
Stator 3-15
Rotor 3-16
Insulation 3-16
AC Motor—Electrical Connections 3-18
Dual Voltage Connection 3-18
Nameplate Data for AC Motor 3-21
Types of AC Motor and Applications 3-23
Induction Motors 3-23
Synchronous Motors 3-25
Summary 3-29

4. MOTOR CONTROLLERS
Objectives 4-1
Introduction 4-1
Motor Controllers Types and Operation 4-3
Manual Controller 4-3
Semiautomatic Controller 4-4
Automatic Controller 4-5
Control Devices and Symbols 4-7
Primary Control and Pilot Control Devices 4-7
Magnetic Contactors 4-12
Interlocks 4-15
Overloads 4-15
Basic Control Circuits 4-19
Circuit Analysis 4-20
Developing a Control Circuit 4-28
Summary 4-34

5. VARIABLE SPEED AC AND DC DRIVES
Objectives 5-1
Introduction 5-1
Electrical Terminology 5-1
Resistor 5-1
Series Circuit 5-2
Parallel Circuit 5-2
Loads 5-3
Semiconductor Devices 5-5
Diode 5-5
Transistor 5-6
Thyristor 5-7
SCR (Silicone-Controlled Rectifier) 5-7
DC Drive Operation 5-9
Basic DC Motor Speed Control 5-9
Single-Phase Half-Wave Speed Control System For a DC Shunt Motor 5-9
Single-Phase Full-Wave Speed Control System 5-11
Three-Phase Speed Control System 5-12
Reversible Speed Control 5-15
Typical DC Motor Drive System 5-16
AC Variable Frequency Drive Operation 5-19
Static Frequency Changers 5-20
Variable Voltage Controller 5-22
Rectifier Inverter System Using SCRs 5-24
Rectifier Inverter System Using Power Transistors 5-25
AC Variable Frequency Drives Interconnection and speed control 5-30
Programmable Parameters 5-32
Control Terminal Block Connections 5-36
Summary 5-37

6. MOTORS AND DRIVES MAINTENANCE AND TROUBLESHOOTING
Objectives 6-1
Introduction 6-1
Routine Maintenance for DC Drives 6-2
Routine Maintenance for AC Drives 6-6
DC Motors and Drives Troubleshooting 6-9
AC Motors and Drives Troubleshooting 6-11
Troubleshooting Prechecks 6-15
Summary 6-17

7. MOTORS AND DRIVES EXERCISES (A-1 through A-9) 



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